在使用Nginx做反向代理功能时,有时会出现重定向的url不是我们想要的url,这时候就可以使用proxy_redirect进行url重定向设置了。proxy_redirect功能比较强大,其作用是对发送给客户端的URL进行修改!!

语法:proxy_redirect [ default|off|redirect replacement ];

默认:proxy_redirect default;

配置块(使用的字段):http、server、location

当上游服务器返回的响应是重定向或刷新请求(如HTTP响应码是301或者302)时,proxy_redirect可以重设HTTP头部的location或refresh字段。

location /login {
proxy_pass http://target_servers/login ;
}


如果需要修改从被代理服务器传来的应答头中的"Location"和"Refresh"字段,这时候就可以用proxy_redirect这个指令设置。

假设被代理服务器返回Location字段为: http://localhost:8000/two/some/uri/
这个指令: proxy_redirect http://localhost:8000/two/ http://frontend/one/;
将Location字段重写为http://frontend/one/some/uri/。
在代替的字段中可以不写服务器名:

proxy_redirect http://localhost:8000/two/ /;
这样就使用服务器的基本名称和端口,即使它来自非80端口。
如果使用"default"参数,将根据location和proxy_pass参数的设置来决定。

例如下列两个配置等效:
location /one/ {
proxy_pass http://upstream:port/two/;
proxy_redirect default;
}

location /one/ {
proxy_pass http://upstream:port/two/;
proxy_redirect http://upstream:port/two/ /one/;
}


在指令中可以使用一些变量:
proxy_redirect http://localhost:8000/ http://$host:$server_port/;

这个指令有时可以重复:
proxy_redirect default;
proxy_redirect http://localhost:8000/ /;
proxy_redirect; /;

参数off将在这个字段中禁止所有的proxy_redirect指令:
proxy_redirect off;
proxy_redirect default;
proxy_redirect http://localhost:8000/ /;

利用这个指令可以为被代理服务器发出的相对重定向增加主机名:
proxy_redirect / /;

将被代理服务器发出的重定向http协议的location改为https协议:
proxy_redirect ~^http://([^:]+)(:\d+)?(.*)$ https://$1$2$3;


 下面通过几个小实例来体验下proxy_redirect的使用效果:

==============================================================================

假设当前nginx的访问地址为http://10.10.10.9:8080,如果kevin-inc又需要302到10.10.10.9/xxx
那么可以添加下redirect,将302的location改为http://10.10.10.9:8080/xxx

location /login {
proxy_pass http://kevin-inc/login ;
proxy_redirect http://10.10.10.9/ http://10.10.10.9:8080/;
}

--------------------------------
host变量
如果不想写死ip地址,可以使用nginx的变量

location /login {
proxy_pass http://kevin-inc/login ;
proxy_redirect http://$host/ http://$http_host/;
}

其中host不带端口的,也就是nginx部署的主机ip,而$http_host是带端口的


==============================================================================

server { 
listen 80;
server_name www.kevin.com;
location / {
proxy_pass http://10.0.8.40:9080;
}
}

这段配置一般情况下都正常,但偶尔会出错, 抓包发现服务器给客户端的跳转指令里加了端口号,如Location: http://www.kevin.com:9080/abc.html 。
因为nginx服务器侦听的是80端口,所以这样的URL给了客户端,必然会出错.
针对这种情况, 加一条proxy_redirect指令: proxy_redirect http://www.kevin.com:9080/ / ,即把所有"http://www.kevin.com:9080/"的内容替换成
"/"再发给客户端,就解决了。

server {
listen 80;
server_name www.kevin.com;
proxy_redirect http://www.kevin.com:9080/ /;
location / {
proxy_pass http://10.0.8.40:9080;
}
}


==============================================================================

前端的Nginx负责把http://www.kevin.com/grace/Server/开头的url反向代理到后端的http://10.0.8.40/Server/上。
对于有完整的路径,如http://www.kevin.com/grace/Server/的代理没有问题,Server对应后台服务器的一个目录。

但当访问http://www.kevin.com/grace/Server时,后端Nginx会发送一个301到/上,于是返回到前端后URL变成了http://www.kevin.com/Server/,这个url显然不是我们想要的。

在Apache中有个ProxyPassReverse的参数,用来调整反向代理服务器发送的http应答头的url,可以解决这个问题。
在Nginx代理配置,可以使用proxy_redirect这个参数,它实现的功能和ProxyPassReverse类似,例如增加如下配置:

location ^~ /grace {
proxy_pass http://10.0.8.40/;
proxy_redirect http://www.kevin.com/ /grace/;
}


==============================================================================

如下启用了proxy_redirect配置(http->https),配置中就不需要"proxy_set_header Host $host;",即不需要"添加发往后端服务器的请求头"的配置了

[root@external-lb01 vhosts]# cat 80-www.kevin.com.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name www.kevin.com kevin.com;

access_log /data/nginx/logs/www.kevin.com-access.log main;
error_log /data/nginx/logs/www.kevin.com-error.log;

error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}

return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
}



[root@external-lb01 ~]# cat /data/nginx/conf/vhosts/443-www.kevin.com.conf.bak
upstream scf_cluster {
ip_hash;
server 192.168.10.20:9020;
server 192.168.10.21:9020;
}
upstream portal_cluster {
ip_hash;
server 192.168.10.20:9040;
server 192.168.10.21:9040;
}
upstream file_cluster{
ip_hash;
server 192.168.10.20:9020;
}
upstream workflow_cluster{
ip_hash;
server 192.168.10.20:9020;
server 192.168.10.21:9020;
}
upstream batch_cluster{
server 192.168.10.20:9020;
server 192.168.10.21:9020;
}

server {
listen 443;
server_name www.kevin.com kevin.com;

ssl on;
ssl_certificate /data/nginx/conf/ssl/kevin.cer;
ssl_certificate_key /data/nginx/conf/ssl/kevin.key;
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_ciphers ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE:ECDH:AES:HIGH:!NULL:!aNULL:!MD5:!ADH:!RC4:!DH:!DHE;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

access_log /data/nginx/logs/www.kevin.com-access.log main;
error_log /data/nginx/logs/www.kevin.com-error.log;

error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}


location /scf {
proxy_pass http://scf_cluster/scf;
proxy_redirect http://scf_cluster/scf https://www.kevin.com/scf;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;

}


location / {
proxy_pass http://portal_cluster/portal-pc/;
proxy_redirect http://portal_cluster/portal-pc/ https://www.kevin.com/;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;

}

location /msdp-file {
proxy_pass http://file_cluster/msdp-file;
proxy_redirect http://file_cluster/msdp-file https://www.kevin.com/msdp-file;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;

}

location /upload {
proxy_pass http://file_cluster/upload;
proxy_redirect http://file_cluster/upload https://www.kevin.com/upload;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;

}

location /activiti-workflow-console {
proxy_pass http://workflow_cluster/activiti-workflow-console;
proxy_redirect http://workflow_cluster/activiti-workflow-console https://www.kevin.com/activiti-workflow-console;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;

}
location /batch-framework-web {
proxy_pass http://batch_cluster/batch-framework-web;
proxy_redirect http://batch_cluster/batch-framework-web https://www.kevin.com/batch-framework-web;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;

}
}


===============================================================================

在看下nginx中非80端口的转发,注意:当端口是非80时,proxy_set_header项的$host后面一定要加上端口

如下,当http通过proxy_pass到非80端口的做法:
[root@external-lb01 vhosts]# cat mobi.kevin.com.conf
upstream mobi_cluster{
server 10.0.54.20:8080;
}

server {
listen 80;
server_name mobi.kevin.com;

access_log /data/nginx/logs/mobi.kevin.com-access.log main;
error_log /data/nginx/logs/mobi.kevin.com-error.log;

location / {
proxy_pass http://mobi_cluster;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_redirect http://mobi_cluster/ http://mobi.kevin.com/;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
}
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}
}


=========================================================================

再看一个匹配上下文的代理配置

[root@uatinner-lb01 vhosts]# cat /opt/uatbob-vfc.kevin.com.conf 
server {
listen 443;
server_name uatbob-vfc.kevin.com;

ssl on;
ssl_certificate /data/nginx/conf/ssl/ssl.kevin.com.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /data/nginx/conf/ssl/ssl.kevin.com.key;
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_ciphers ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE:ECDH:AES:HIGH:!NULL:!aNULL:!MD5:!ADH:!RC4:!DH:!DHE;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

access_log /data/nginx/logs/uatbob-vfc.kevin.com-access.log main;
error_log /data/nginx/logs/uatbob-vfc.kevin.com-error.log;

location /devxcd/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.16:50002/;
proxy_redirect off ;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
#proxy_cache mycache;
#proxy_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#proxy_cache_valid 301 1d;
#proxy_cache_valid any 1m;
}

location /fvtxcd/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.75:50002/;
proxy_redirect off ;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
#proxy_cache mycache;
#proxy_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#proxy_cache_valid 301 1d;
#proxy_cache_valid any 1m;
}

location /uatxcd/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.184:50002/;
proxy_redirect off ;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
#proxy_cache mycache;
#proxy_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#proxy_cache_valid 301 1d;
#proxy_cache_valid any 1m;
}

location /devxcd/xcdcomment/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.73:9997/;
}

location /fvtxcd/xcdcomment/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.73/9997/;
}

location /uatxcd/xcdcomment/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.73/9997/;
}
}


上面配置匹配/devxcd/xcdcomment/, /fvtxcd/xcdcomment/, /uatxcd/xcdcomment/的上下文代理后, 访问:
https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/devxcd/xcdcomment/images/example_doorPlate.jpg 访问正常打开
https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/fvtxcd/xcdcomment/images/example_doorPlate.jpg 访问出现404
https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/uatxcd/xcdcomment/images/example_doorPlate.jpg 访问出现404

解决: 添加proxy_redirect配置项

修改后的配置
[root@uatinner-lb01 vhosts]# cat uatbob-vfc.kevin.com.conf
server {
listen 443;
server_name uatbob-vfc.kevin.com;

ssl on;
ssl_certificate /data/nginx/conf/ssl/ssl.kevin.com.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /data/nginx/conf/ssl/ssl.kevin.com.key;
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_ciphers ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE:ECDH:AES:HIGH:!NULL:!aNULL:!MD5:!ADH:!RC4:!DH:!DHE;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

access_log /data/nginx/logs/uatbob-vfc.kevin.com-access.log main;
error_log /data/nginx/logs/uatbob-vfc.kevin.com-error.log;

location /devxcd/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.16:50002/;
proxy_redirect off ;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
#proxy_cache mycache;
#proxy_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#proxy_cache_valid 301 1d;
#proxy_cache_valid any 1m;
}

location /fvtxcd/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.75:50002/;
proxy_redirect off ;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
#proxy_cache mycache;
#proxy_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#proxy_cache_valid 301 1d;
#proxy_cache_valid any 1m;
}

location /uatxcd/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.184:50002/;
proxy_redirect off ;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
#proxy_cache mycache;
#proxy_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#proxy_cache_valid 301 1d;
#proxy_cache_valid any 1m;
}

location /devxcd/xcdcomment/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.73:9997/;
proxy_redirect http://http://172.16.50.73:9997/ https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/devxcd/xcdcomment/;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
}

location /fvtxcd/xcdcomment/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.73:9997/;
proxy_redirect http://http://172.16.50.73:9997/ https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/fvtxcd/xcdcomment/;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
}

location /uatxcd/xcdcomment/ {
proxy_pass http://172.16.50.73:9997/;
proxy_redirect http://http://172.16.50.73:9997/ https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/uatxcd/xcdcomment/;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_connect_timeout 300;
proxy_send_timeout 300;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
proxy_buffer_size 256k;
proxy_buffers 4 256k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 http_404;
proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
}
}

修改后, 访问:
https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/devxcd/xcdcomment/images/example_doorPlate.jpg 访问正常打开
https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/fvtxcd/xcdcomment/images/example_doorPlate.jpg 访问正常打开
https://uatbob-vfc.kevin.com/uatxcd/xcdcomment/images/example_doorPlate.jpg 访问正常打开


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