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STM32+L298N+PWM可调速小车(四驱)

发布时间:2022/10/5 17:33:20

一、L298N电机驱动板

在这里插入图片描述
电源引脚

VCC 外接直流电源引脚,电压范围在5~35V之间
GND GND是接地引脚,连接到电源负极
5V 驱动芯片内部逻辑供电引脚,如果安装了5V跳帽,则此引脚可输出5V电压,为微控板或其他电路提供电力供给,如果拔掉5V跳帽,则需要独立外接5V电源

控制引脚

  1. IN1 & IN2 电机驱动器A的输入引脚,控制电机A转动及旋转角度
    IN1输入高电平HIGH,IN2输入低电平LOW,对应电机A正转
    IN1输入低电平LOW,IN2输入高电平HIGH,对应电机A反转
    IN1、IN2同时输入高电平HIGH或低电平LOW,对应电机A停止转动
    调速就是改变IN1、IN2高电平的占空比(需拔掉ENA处跳帽)

  2. IN3 & IN4 电机驱动器B的输入引脚,控制电机B转动及旋转角度
    IN3输入高电平HIGH,IN4输入低电平LOW,对应电机B正转
    IN3输入低电平LOW,IN4输入高电平HIGH,对应电机B反转
    IN3、IN4同时输入高电平HIGH或低电平LOW,对应电机B停止转动
    调速就是改变IN3、IN4高电平的占空比(需拔掉ENB处跳帽)

输出引脚

  1. OUT1 & OUT2 电机驱动器A的输出引脚,接直流电机A或步进电机的A+和A-
  2. OUT3 & OUT3 电机驱动器B的输出引脚,接直流电机B或步进电机的B+和B-

调速控制引脚

  1. ENA 电机A调速开关引脚,拔掉跳帽,使用PWM对电机A调速,插上电机A高速运行
  2. ENB 电机B调速开关引脚,拔掉跳帽,使用PWM对电机B调速,插上电机B高速运行

OUT1、OUT2和OUT3、OUT4之间分别接两个直流电机Motor1、Motor2,IN1、IN2、IN3、IN4引脚从单片机接入控制电平,控制电机的正反转,ENA、ENB接控制使能端,控制电机调速,L298N控制逻辑关系图如下:
在这里插入图片描述


二、STM32的PWM输出

1、通用定时器(TIM2 ~ TIM5)
每个定时都有 4个独立通道作为输出
在这里插入图片描述
2、高级控制定时器(TIM1 & TIM8)
该款定时器可产生7路 PWM输出:
在这里插入图片描述
3.STM32F1的TIM3输出引脚
本文用到STM32F1的TIM3的通道1~4,下面对TIM3的引脚作简要介绍:
本实验选择没有重映像的四个引脚,即PA6、PA7、PB0、PB1(有无重映像会在TIM3初始化部分的代码有所体现)

三、硬件连接

本设计用到两个L298N驱动板,四个小黄电机,一块STM32F103ZET6开发板
第一块L298N接左前电机和左后电机:
ENA—PA6,ENB—PA7
左前电机:IN1—PB7,IN2—PB6
左后电机:IN3—PB9,IN4—PB2

第二块L298N接右前电机和右后电机:
ENA—PB0,ENB—PB1
左前电机:IN1—PB13,IN2—PB12
左后电机:IN3—PB15,IN4—PB14

四、主要代码

timer.c

#include "timer.h"
#include "led.h"
#include "usart.h"void TIM3_Int_Init(u16 arr,u16 psc)
{TIM_TimeBaseInitTypeDef  TIM_TimeBaseStructure;NVIC_InitTypeDef NVIC_InitStructure;RCC_APB1PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB1Periph_TIM3, ENABLE); TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_Period = arr; TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_Prescaler =psc;  TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_ClockDivision = 0; TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_CounterMode = TIM_CounterMode_Up;  TIM_TimeBaseInit(TIM3, &TIM_TimeBaseStructure); TIM_ITConfig(TIM3,TIM_IT_Update,ENABLE ); TIM_Cmd(TIM3, ENABLE);  							 
}//TIM3 PWM部分初始化
//PWM输出初始化
//arr:自动重装值
//psc:时钟预分频数void TIM3_PWM_Init(u16 arr,u16 psc)
{  GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure;TIM_TimeBaseInitTypeDef  TIM_TimeBaseStructure;TIM_OCInitTypeDef  TIM_OCInitStructure;RCC_APB1PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB1Periph_TIM3, ENABLE);RCC_APB2PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOB  | RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOA | RCC_APB2Periph_AFIO, ENABLE); //GPIO_PinRemapConfig(GPIO_PartialRemap_TIM3, ENABLE); //这句话是正点原子官方例程“PWM输出实验”中给的,目的是Timer3部分重映射,将TIM3_CH2->PB5。本实验不用重映像//设置PA6和PA7为复用输出功能,输出TIM3 CH1和TIM3 CH2的PWM脉冲波形GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = GPIO_Pin_7 |GPIO_Pin_6; GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_AF_PP;//复用推挽输出GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStructure);//设置PB0和PB1为复用输出功能,输出TIM3 CH3和TIM3 CH4的PWM脉冲波形GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = GPIO_Pin_0 |GPIO_Pin_1; GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_AF_PP;//复用推挽输出 GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStructure);//初始化TIM3	TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_Period = arr;TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_Prescaler =psc; TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_ClockDivision = 0; TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_CounterMode = TIM_CounterMode_Up;  TIM_TimeBaseInit(TIM3, &TIM_TimeBaseStructure); //初始化TIM3 Channel 1 PWM	 TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCMode = TIM_OCMode_PWM2; TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputState = TIM_OutputState_Enable; TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCPolarity = TIM_OCPolarity_High; TIM_OC1Init(TIM3, &TIM_OCInitStructure);TIM_OC1PreloadConfig(TIM3, TIM_OCPreload_Enable);//初始化TIM3 Channel 2 PWM	 TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCMode = TIM_OCMode_PWM2;TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputState = TIM_OutputState_Enable; TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCPolarity = TIM_OCPolarity_High; TIM_OC2Init(TIM3, &TIM_OCInitStructure); TIM_OC2PreloadConfig(TIM3, TIM_OCPreload_Enable); //初始化TIM3 Channel 3 PWM	 TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCMode = TIM_OCMode_PWM2;TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputState = TIM_OutputState_Enable; TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCPolarity = TIM_OCPolarity_High; TIM_OC3Init(TIM3, &TIM_OCInitStructure);  TIM_OC3PreloadConfig(TIM3, TIM_OCPreload_Enable); //初始化TIM3 Channel 4 PWM	 TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCMode = TIM_OCMode_PWM2; TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputState = TIM_OutputState_Enable; TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCPolarity = TIM_OCPolarity_High; TIM_OC4Init(TIM3, &TIM_OCInitStructure); TIM_OC4PreloadConfig(TIM3, TIM_OCPreload_Enable); TIM_ARRPreloadConfig(TIM3,ENABLE);//使能自动重装载寄存器,arr的预装载TIM_Cmd(TIM3, ENABLE);//使能TIM3 
}

timer.h

#ifndef __TIMER_H
#define __TIMER_H
#include "sys.h"void TIM3_Int_Init(u16 arr,u16 psc);
void TIM3_PWM_Init(u16 arr,u16 psc);
#endif

MTR_GPIO.c(电机驱动部分)

#include "MTR_GPIO.h"//刹车
void MTR_CarBrakeAll(void){MTR1_BRAKE;MTR2_BRAKE;MTR3_BRAKE;MTR4_BRAKE;
}//右转
void MTR_CarRight(void){MTR1_CW;MTR2_CW;MTR3_CCW;MTR4_CCW;
}//左转
void MTR_CarLeft(void){MTR1_CCW;MTR2_CCW;MTR3_CW;MTR4_CW;
}//后退
void MTR_CarBack(void){MTR1_CCW;MTR2_CCW;MTR3_CCW;MTR4_CCW;
}//前进 
void MTR_CarForward(void){MTR1_CW;MTR2_CW;MTR3_CW;MTR4_CW;
}void MTR_GPIOInit(void){GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure;RCC_APB2PeriphClockCmd(MTR1_GPIO_CLK|MTR2_GPIO_CLK|MTR3_GPIO_CLK|MTR4_GPIO_CLK,ENABLE);GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_Out_PP;//电机1GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = MTR1_GPIO_PIN;GPIO_Init(MTR1_GPIO_PORT, &GPIO_InitStructure);//电机2GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = MTR2_GPIO_PIN;GPIO_Init(MTR2_GPIO_PORT, &GPIO_InitStructure);//电机3GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = MTR3_GPIO_PIN;GPIO_Init(MTR3_GPIO_PORT, &GPIO_InitStructure);//电机4GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = MTR4_GPIO_PIN;GPIO_Init(MTR4_GPIO_PORT, &GPIO_InitStructure);
}

MTR_GPIO.h

#ifndef __MTR_GPIO_H
#define __MTR_GPIO_H#include "stm32f10x.h"#define MTR1_GPIO_PORT		GPIOB
#define MTR1_GPIO_CLK 	    RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOB
#define MTR1_GPIO_PIN		GPIO_Pin_6|GPIO_Pin_7
#define MTR1_CW				{GPIO_ResetBits(MTR1_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_6);GPIO_SetBits(MTR1_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_7);}
#define MTR1_CCW			{GPIO_SetBits(MTR1_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_6);GPIO_ResetBits(MTR1_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_7);}
#define MTR1_BRAKE			GPIO_ResetBits(MTR1_GPIO_PORT,MTR1_GPIO_PIN);#define MTR2_GPIO_PORT    	GPIOB
#define MTR2_GPIO_CLK 	    RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOB
#define MTR2_GPIO_PIN		GPIO_Pin_2|GPIO_Pin_9
#define MTR2_CW				{GPIO_ResetBits(MTR2_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_2);GPIO_SetBits(MTR2_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_9);}
#define MTR2_CCW			{GPIO_SetBits(MTR2_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_2);GPIO_ResetBits(MTR2_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_9);}
#define MTR2_BRAKE			GPIO_ResetBits(MTR2_GPIO_PORT,MTR2_GPIO_PIN);#define MTR3_GPIO_PORT    	GPIOB
#define MTR3_GPIO_CLK 	    RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOB
#define MTR3_GPIO_PIN		GPIO_Pin_12|GPIO_Pin_13
#define MTR3_CW				{GPIO_ResetBits(MTR3_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_12);GPIO_SetBits(MTR3_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_13);}
#define MTR3_CCW			{GPIO_SetBits(MTR3_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_12);GPIO_ResetBits(MTR3_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_13);}
#define MTR3_BRAKE			GPIO_ResetBits(MTR3_GPIO_PORT,MTR3_GPIO_PIN);#define MTR4_GPIO_PORT    	GPIOB
#define MTR4_GPIO_CLK 	    RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOB
#define MTR4_GPIO_PIN		GPIO_Pin_14|GPIO_Pin_15
#define MTR4_CW				{GPIO_ResetBits(MTR4_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_14);GPIO_SetBits(MTR4_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_15);}
#define MTR4_CCW			{GPIO_SetBits(MTR4_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_14);GPIO_ResetBits(MTR4_GPIO_PORT,GPIO_Pin_15);}#define MTR4_BRAKE			GPIO_ResetBits(MTR4_GPIO_PORT,MTR4_GPIO_PIN);void MTR_CarBrakeAll(void);
void MTR_CarRight(void);
void MTR_CarLeft(void);
void MTR_CarBack(void);
void MTR_CarForward(void);
void MTR_GPIOInit(void);#endif

main.c

#include "delay.h"
#include "key.h"
#include "sys.h"
#include "usart.h"
#include "timer.h"
#include "MTR_GPIO.h"//主函数改编自正点原子“PWM输出实验”,驱动四个电机输出PWM信号即电机转速可变int main(void){		u16 led0pwmval=0;u8 dir=1;	delay_init();	    	 	  NVIC_PriorityGroupConfig(NVIC_PriorityGroup_2); 	 uart_init(115200);TIM3_PWM_Init(899,0);	 //不分频,PWM频率=72000000/900=80KhzMTR_GPIOInit();	while(1){delay_ms(10);	 if(dir)led0pwmval++;else led0pwmval--;MTR_CarForward();if(led0pwmval>800)dir=0;if(led0pwmval==0)dir=1;										 TIM_SetCompare1(TIM3,led0pwmval);	TIM_SetCompare2(TIM3,led0pwmval);	TIM_SetCompare3(TIM3,led0pwmval);	TIM_SetCompare4(TIM3,led0pwmval);	}	 }

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